The exclusion of either the contemporaneous or the long-term view is one-sided in regard to the concepts and praxis. The discussion of the Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts is one-sided if it remains external to the work itself: Das Volk, No 14, August 6, Karl Korsch, Karl Marx , p. A review of the problem at the time is given by Korsch in the edition of his work, and in E. Gerlach's account, introducing the ed. Schumpeter, however, was incapable of comprehending Marx's dialectic or relation to Hegel.
On Schumpeter and the history of the problem, cf. Here the relation of Engels and Morgan in relation to Marx's view is discussed. Marx is made the author of the materialist conception of history. See also Lichtheim, Marxism , p. Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution , Preface; ib. See Adorno , T.
“Between Marx, Marxism, and Marxisms – Ways of Reading Marx’s Theory”: Ingo Elbe
The issue of positivity and positivism in application of the dialectic to nature by Engels, to human history by Sartre see below, p. The volume put out by T. Jordan here proposes the following schema: Engels's dialectic materialism is equated to Hegelian positivism, Marx's trend of thought to naturalism. Jordan, whose learning is great, sometimes writes inaccurately.
So far so good. But then Jordan writes: And since he assumed prediction in the field of society to be the same as historical prophecy, scientific socialism was to be based upon a study of historical causes and effects, and finally upon the prophecy of its own advent. Korsch's position on Marx and Marxism was the opposite of regarding him as a prophet. On the contrary it is Jordan's interpretation of Marx, side by side with those of Croce and Popper, that places Marx in the class of prophets; according to Jordan, Marx's doctrine is not conceived as a natural necessity but a dialectical inevitability; it is the ideology of redemption; Marx's belief is not scientific but eschatological Jordan, op.
According to Popper, op. Marxism and Anarchism , pp. The relation of man to nature was not explored deeply by Engels; man as part of nature, including his fantastic and mystical representation of himself and nature, is a complex problem whose modern sources are found in Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, British empiricism, nineteenth century mathematical controversy over unreal and irrational numbers, etc.
In the first place, the dialectical relations of abstraction to concretion in their actual and potential moments on the one side, their subjective and objective moments on the other, have not been brought out in recent discussions referring to man and nature.
Engels is an analytic not a dialectic thinker; this regime is imposed on Engels by his economism. In the second, the alienation of man from nature is, besides a problem of morality and right, one of ontology and episte-mology. Marx set forth his positions, in view of the complications of these matters, in the s. They have not often been since developed with fidelity in the lines indicated by him. Georges Sorel, Reflexions sur la Violence , Ch. Of the many oppositions of natural and human in Marx, this is perhaps the least appropriate or apt. Schmidt brings out the non-ontological character of Marx's materialism, which is a point well worth making in reference to Marx's Feuerbach Theses.
The difference between Marx and Engels in regard to philosophical materialism is put bySchmidt p. Nature is defined by Schmidt pp.
This needs further discussion as to the young Marx, who conceived of the dialectical relation of the actual separation and potential unity of man's relation to nature. Marx, at the time that he wrote Capital, broadened the systems of human activity in relation to nature. For an appreciation cp.
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See Kraver , L. Marx-Engels Archiv , Vol. The editorial introduction by Ryazanov is the most synoptic history of the manuscript available. See also MEW, Vol. Further circumstances of its publication are given by Cornu , A. See Addition 2, below. Engels debt to Marx: Prefaces to 1st, 4th ed. Further bibliographic precisions regarding the following discussion will be found therein. The excerpts and notes from the first three works are gathered in Notebook B , the fourth in Notebook B , of the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis.
The first three sets of excerpts were made by Marx during the winter of and the first half of , the fourth late in , some four months before the death of Marx. Beside the excerpts from the works listed, Notebook B also contains excerpts by Marx from works by J. Money on Java, Rudolph Sohm on ancient and medieval law, and E. The Lubbock excerpts and notes are more restricted in form and content than the early notes but reveal, nevertheless, a remarkable state of mental activity of Marx even at the last stage of his life. Vestnik Sotsialisticheskoy Akademii , No 6 , , pp. This in no way is to diminish the services of Ryazanov in editing and publishing the writings of Marx, including those unpublished at the time of his death.
Ryazanov in this lecture first called attention to the excerpts by Marx from Maine and Lubbock, in addition to the excerpts from Morgan known through Engels. Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie. While Engels was the first author listed on the title page, Marx wrote most of the work. His judgment is onesided. This latter work was written in MEW, Vol.
His studies had as their outcome that legal relations and forms of the state are rooted in the material relations of life MEW, Vol. According to Marx the materialist factor, or the material relations, were already set forth by him in —44, thus antedating the time limit of —46 proposed by Cornu, Althusser, etc. The theory setting forth that the root of law, right, the state lies in the material relations of life is incompatible with a theory of essences, and is positively related to the subsequent formulations of Marx regarding the ensemble of social relations against Feuer-bach , the scientific or materialist method, etc.
Marx had already broken with the philosophy of essence at that earlier time. To be radical means to go to the root of things; Marx had already gone to the root in The letter is dated February 16, The letter is dated August 11, Here Engels refers to Maine's theory of the social progress from status to contract. It is propounded in Maine's work Everyman's Library, p. Marx, however, simply records the theory of Maine in a way that implies his accord, without a claim to right of priority, in his excerpts from Maine, Early Institutions The Ethnological Notebooks.
Maine's restriction of the derivation of status from powers and privileges in the family is here contested as being too narrow. It excludes the powers of the person that lie outside the family in classical antiquity and also outside the restricted field of privileges. Also Marx, Chronik, op. Marx had already come into contact with the work of Bancroft in conjunction with his critical notes from Kovalevsky, op. Kovalevsky relied heavily on Bancroft in regard to Indians of North America.
Zeit , Die Neue , Vol.
The Works of Marx and Engels in Ethnology Compared
Cunow's work, as can be seen, is of more than historical importance. But Cunow's mastery of the existing literature was also occasionally inexact. This is nonsense, to comprise all of civilized usage in one formula. Die Gesell-schaft , Vol. This proves exactly how at this stage the kind of production is less decisive than the degree of dissolution of the old consanguineal bonds and the old mutual community of the sexes in the tribe. There is history only because there are variable factors.
The production of people is a constant factor. We have to deal with the interaction of two kinds of history, and not remove man from nature or nature from history. But this is a minor point compared to the services of Manchen-Helfen. But Cornu has written: This is a confusion that introduces biological into social matters.
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Engels had included Origin, Preface the biological factor within his idea at that time of historical materialism. Lucas concludes that the separation of the economic factor from primitive society by Engels had [as one] consequence that Morgan is declared to be a historical materialist ib. One could consider Morgan to be a historical materialist not on the basis of his having founded an interpretation of primitive society on the basis of kinship but on that of property.
Engels cited Morgan in regard to the latter interpretation see the end of The Origin of the Family , as well as the former. This plainly means that the economic factor, according to Engels, is indeed to be found in ancient society, including primitive. Engels made increase in wealth to be the decisive factor in the overthrow in ancient society of mother-right and substitution of father-right Origin, pp. This is connected with the period of decline of gentile society; but prior to that, while gentile society was still flourishing, an economic factor brought about a change in the form of the family, leading to the introduction of father-right and slavery.
This factor, according to Engels, was the acquisition of domesticated livestock as property ib. Engels had not worked out an internally consistent system. On the relation between the materialist conception of history and the economic factor see also George Plekhanov, The Materialist Conception of History various eds ; Plekhanov , G.
See above, discussion of The German Ideology. In the excerpts from Maine's Early History, Marx made the comment: The dialectical opposition in the Morgan excerpt is without temporal movement, that is, in a state of tension against temporal movement, of stored-up temporal movement, ending in the petrification of the gens-caste relation. The dialectical opposition in the Maine excerpts has a temporal movement implicit within itself, which is the progress in the means of production in hunting and fishing technology ; upon this basis the progress in military technology rests.
The village appears to be earlier in time than the state, but it is not clear whether the family is logically or chronologically prior to the village according to Aristotle. Elsewhere I have suggested that Aristotle, in this passage as well as in related parts of the Nicomachaean Ethics, applied the term polis in two senses: See also the discussion of Platonic emanation in Hegel, pp. Here the figure of Ernst Haeckel is not well represented; for his Social Darwinism cf.
The Ethnological Notebooks, Introduction, passim. Engels, Der Ursprung, etc. Production by separate entrepreneurs, which is increasingly becoming an exception. Capitalist production by joint-stock companies is no longer private production but production on behalf of many associated people. And when we pass on from joint-stock companies to trusts, which dominate and monopolise whole branches of industry, this puts an end not only to private production but also to planlessness.
For Engels, the bourgeoisie has already become obsolete through the separation of ownership and management functions. The capitalist has no further social function than that of pocketing dividends, tearing off coupons, and gambling on the Stock Exchange, where the different capitalists despoil one another of their capital. At first the capitalist mode of production forces out the workers.
Now it forces out the capitalists, and reduces them, just as it reduced the workers, to the ranks of the surplus population, although not immediately into those of the industrial reserve army. In his Prison Notebooks , Gramsci provided the exemplary critique of the fixation of revolutionary strategy upon the model of the October Revolution. The Russian revolutionary model is also condemned to failure in the West because the belief in the universal nature of experience of the Bolsheviks with a centralist-despotic Tsarism leads to a disregard for the relevance of ideological socialization by means of the apparatuses of civil society, and their effect: This theoretical insight into the uncompromising nature of critical theory is at the same time an admission of the historical process of an increasing rift between emancipatory theory and the perspective of revolutionary praxis.
With the propagation of socialism in one country, the Bolshevization of the Western Communist Parties, and the establishment of Marxism-Leninism as the official ideology of the Third International after the mids, there begins the characteristic isolation of the representatives of Western Marxism: Until the mids it seems that no Western Marxists extended their debate with traditional interpretations of Marx into the realm of value theory.
In terms of content, a threefold abandonment of central topoi of traditional Marxism was consummated in the main threads of the debate, themselves contradictory and in no way shared by all participants: Althusser defines the tasks of a reconstruction as the removal of the inadequate meta-discourse and the transformation of its dominant metaphors, which he reads as symptoms for the absence of an adequate self-reflection of the real procedure of the analysis of capital, into concepts.
If the former contains insights into the social context of mediation of the bourgeois mode of production, the latter is content with an unmediated description and systematization of the objective forms of thought of the everyday consciousness of social actors, remaining trapped in the reified illusion of the immediacy of phenomena which are in fact socially mediated. It results from a determinate form of thought which is the systematic and initially involuntary product of the forms of social intercourse of the capitalist mode of production.
The doctrine of the inviolability of the presentation of the critique of political economy in Capital is finally discarded. Ultimately, the increased popularization of the presentation of the analysis of the forms of value from the Grundrisse to the second edition of Capital was pointed out.
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This popularization, to the extent that it increasingly concealed the form-genetic method, offered points of reference to historicist and substantialist readings. It succumbs to the self-mystification of the capitalist world of objects as a world of natural forms 91 , thus depriving humans of the ability to configure and alter their fundamental structures. It unscrambles the apparently independent, apparently objectively grounded forms of social wealth and the political compulsion of the capitalist mode of production as historically specific and therefore — albeit in no way arbitrarily or in a piecemeal manner — as changeable forms of praxis.
Thus categories such as abstract labor, value, and the elementary form of value were reinterpreted in an empiricist way, and the connection between commodity, money, and capital — considered essential by Marx — was transformed into a coincidence. Marxism thus operated on a methodological and value-theoretical terrain that Marx had criticized with regard to classical economics. Political economy therefore operates fundamentally within the field of fetishistic forms.
Money is understood as a purely technical instrument which for reasons of convenience takes the place of exchange on the basis of calculations of labor-time magnitudes. In this sense, Marx speaks of the substance of value as a result obtained in exchange which furthermore first acquires an intertemporal existence as capital. The sequence of the categories of commodity and money is not to be understood as a historical sequence of independently existing circumstances, but rather as a conceptual analysis. Ingo Elbe is a researcher at the University of Oldenburg.
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