She goes on to describe some factors that do e. Work on this underestimation process will be a welcome addition to the traditional focus of social influence research, but for the field to regain its prominence, it must also make a fundamental change. In the past, social influence research and applications have largely focused on face-to-face encounters.
If not true already, we will soon enter a time in which people interact and influence each other through social media more than they do in person.
Edited by Stephen G. Harkins, Kipling D. Williams, and Jerry Burger
There is a certain irony in the fact that the ebbing of interest in social influence was marked by the decline in the use of behavioral measures documented by Baumeister et al. For example, major historical social actions have already occurred largely through the influence of social media e. We could have peppered his blog with citations to existing research that spoke to his insights, but we chose to leave his piece unaltered. We think readers will be intrigued by his ideas, whether they agree or disagree with them. We hope to challenge future social influence researchers and theorists to bring what they know from the past to bear on what we are witnessing now with the rapid evolution of social media, to take us into the 21st century of social influence.
We close with reflection and a call for action. In our experience teaching social psychology for over 40 years each , we know of no other topic that has garnered as much interest and enthusiasm among students as the research included in this volume on social influence. Students love behavioral measures; they are captivated by the findings of clever field studies that show surprisingly powerful effects with subtle tactics, and years later, these are the studies they remember. The cognitive revolution, in conjunction with statistical analyses that purport to discover psychological process, retarded the development of research and theory on social influence because intrusive measures searching for p.
Perhaps also contributing to the decline of high-impact social influence research is the fact that these studies often required the carefully controlled creation of dramatic situations, reenacted over and over again by skilled actors, in order to capture the psychological essence of the phenomena being studied. These procedures are much more difficult and time consuming than paper-and-pencil or computer methodologies. Perhaps if we consider the fact that social influence in the future will largely occur online, then we can conceive of both realistic and meaningful experiments that also happen to allow for more efficient means of data collection.
As we trust is obvious to our readers, there are many new and important avenues of exploration in this domain.
The Future of Social Influence in Social Psychology
We hope that this volume will contribute to a resurgence of interest in research and theory related to social influence. Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. Psychology as the science of self-reports and finger movements: Whatever happened to actual behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 2 , — Mis understanding our influence over others: A review of the underestimation-of-compliance effect. Psychological Science , 25 , — Would people still obey today? American Psychologist , 64 , 1— A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment.
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The Next 25 Years
Music Neuroscience Philosophy Physical Sciences. The Oxford Handbook of Social Influence.
Access is brought to you by. Sign in to an additional subscriber account. This account has no valid subscription for this site. Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. In This Article References. In winding up this year-long series, the Observer contacted several APS Rising Stars from the past few years and asked them to provide forecasts on the different directions that psychological and integrative research will take over the next quarter century.
Future of Social Influence in Social Psychology - Oxford Handbooks
My hope and expectation for the field is that we will become a more welcoming place for interdisciplinary and translational research. Social psychological principles are essential to understanding the experiences of vulnerable populations, and as the discipline evolves, I expect that demonstrating our importance in the actual contexts that affect people will become increasingly valued both by policy experts and by basic psychological scientists.
In part, I expect this because of the overwhelming success behavioral economics enjoys in policy areas such as health care and finance. Their work has demonstrated the influence that social psychological principles can play on major social concerns — though it has rarely been used in the intergroup domain, leaving the door open for social psychologists.
This will reward researchers that focus on studying contexts and do so from multiple methodological angles. Head of clinical and biological psychology University of Ulm, Germany We will have a much deeper knowledge about the molecular processes involved in the etiology and symptomatology of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, it will presumably revolutionize our diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders. Current research suggests that stress accelerates physical aging on various levels, with consequences such as the premature onset of age-related diseases.
With this relationship in mind, we need to put much more energy in the prevention and treatment of trauma- and stress-related disorders to prevent secondary physical disorders that lead to high societal costs. I hope that psychological research will have shown by then how important it is to take psychic processes seriously and to be highly active in the prevention of stressors such as maltreatment during childhood but also the timely and highly qualified treatment of these disorders.
In a field as central and wide reaching as affective science, there are many promising directions on the horizon. My prediction is that the next 25 years will witness expansion in at least four key domains. First, balancing the good and the bad of both positive and negative emotions will be critical to a comprehensive understanding of emotion and its optimal function, as well as situating how context and when timing come into play.
Secondly, moving from the ivory tower to the trenches will become increasingly essential as we transform scientific discoveries into real-world applications, such as developing refined clinical models of psychopathology and its treatment or early preventative efforts to manage emotions early in children and classrooms.
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Third, moving online to study emotional expression and interaction in digital form will becoming increasingly important as social media continues to permeate our everyday communications and social interactions. Finally, given affective science is a rich field spanning a wide variety of interests, building bridges across fields like neuroscience, genetics, and public policy will become increasingly important.
So will crossing levels of analysis from micro-level measurements of gene expression and immune system markers up to macro-level foci on how emotion and its regulation can build a better world and reduce intergroup conflict. For example, research on cognitive aging often relies on the convenience of cross-sectional studies of a highly select sample, but that has been changing over the last few decades. It will likely change even more, as we can use technology to efficiently track and test people over the Internet and use more sophisticated devices to collect data.
Brain imaging technology might be more mobile and convenient, and we can test memory in natural environments by using remote data-acquisition techniques. This has important implications for younger students and older adults. Future research will likely examine how people choose what to remember, and also how they decide to remember it either personally, or digitally.
We will also make better contact with how theory can be applied in a realistic context that can capitalize on what types of things older adults can and need to remember such as focusing on remembering important health and medication information. Research might also develop better ways to improve memory through proper nutrition, goals and mindset, and physical and mental exercise. With a larger older adult population in 25 years, we will hopefully value and empower older adults as people who can provide unique guidance, insight, and wisdom. A great deal of prior research has documented how aging can lead to impairments in a variety of cognitive tasks.
We are now developing a more complete picture regarding what is impaired, and what is not only spared but perhaps enhanced with age. By thinking about how older adults can be productive citizens, we can better appreciate how and why they make unique and meaningful contributions.
In a sense, healthy older adults may be an emerging natural resource. We still have so much to learn about emotion. In the next 25 years, we will make great strides in understanding the biological basis of emotions. Growing technology is allowing us to learn more and more about the neural, hormonal, and even genetic and epigenetic basis of emotion.
We will also continue to learn a lot more about the role of psychological processes in emotion over the course of the next 25 years. Emotions play a role in every moment of waking life from decisions to memories to feelings, so understanding emotions will help us to understand the mind more generally. Associate professor, human resource management Temple University Over the next 25 years, there will be more studies that jointly consider the effects of personal and situational characteristics using multi-level research design.
In particular, more researchers will examine the cross-level influences of situational characteristics such as national culture and organizational climate on employee attitudes and behaviors, while taking into account employee personal characteristics. In addition, we will see more studies that predict group and organizational performance. We will see more cross-cultural research, particularly comparing North America and East Asia e. More meta-analyses will be published over the next 25 years, and thus we will feel a great need for synthesizing multiple meta-analyses on a similar topic; that is, we will see more second order meta-analyses meta-analysis of meta-analyses.
In measuring individual differences such as cognitive ability, personality, values, and emotions, we will rely less on self-reports, but more on objective, difficult-to-fake measures such as brain images e. This will greatly advance research on staffing, stress, and other relevant areas. Assistant professor, management Columbia Business School Today, over half of Americans report experiencing stress at levels higher than they think is healthy. Moreover, few individuals feel they have the resources to cope and manage the stress in their daily lives.
Over the next 25 years, I would like to see more research highlighting a nuanced perspective on stress that takes into consideration that some stress can actually be good for you. This research would offer evidence supporting the ways in which stress can positively influence the biological processes implicated in physical recovery and immunity, fueling psychological thriving and enhancing health and performance.
I especially hope to see more of this research in organizational settings, where increasing workloads and demands have begun to stifle productivity. This research would entail working in concert with organizations to devise interventions and modify practices that will help individuals better manage the stressors and tensions that are present in organizational environments. I hope that researchers will delve deeper into the myriad contexts within organizations that can generate stress, be they differences in socioeconomic status among employees, cross-race and asymmetrical relationships, gender disparities, or power dynamics.